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The Rebound (2009)

Although there have been many demonstrations of ironic thought processes, no demonstration to date has examined the effect of suppressing appraisals. Ironic phenomena in this domain have tremendous theoretical and practical importance to person perception, trait attribution, and social cognition in general. The authors propose the appraisal rebound hypothesis, which states that the suppression of an appraisal paradoxically activates it. Appraisal rebound was demonstrated across three studies with three different appraisals: unfairness, agency-others, and perceived control. The appraisal rebound effect was also found to be specific only to the suppressed appraisal. These results add to the growing literature on the many ways in which ironic mental processes affect daily thinking and feeling. Specifically, the findings are discussed with regard to emotion regulation, normal chronic emotionality, and psychopathology.

The Rebound (2009)

Upon discovering her husband's infidelity, Sandy leaves the suburbs and moves into the city. There, she befriends Aram, a guy whose wife only married him so she could get a green card. Sandy hires Aram to be her nanny, and it isn't long until Aram and Sandy find out they get along wonderfully and start to date. But is their relationship real or is it, in fact, just a rebound for both of them?

Starring Catherine Zeta-Jones as a woman on a titular rebound, "The Rebound" traces her path as she navigate the world of the recently unmarried. Finding zero romantic luck in suitors her own age, she latches onto Justin Bartha's younger man and launches a journey of self-discovery for each of them.

An example of a rebound effect would be the driver who replaces a car with a fuel-efficient model, only to take advantage of its cheaper running costs to drive further and more often. Or a family that insulates their loft and puts the money saved on their heating bill towards an overseas holiday.

In an effort for a rebound fling, advised by her mates, Sandy goes fishing for a bit of no-strings attached sex with a suitable suitor. A date with a chiropractor goes disastrously wrong, his turn into a portacabin for a quick crap leading to squirm inducing laughs as Sandy freaks out (without saying a word; it's all in the eyes) at his unwashed hands and full-on touchy-feely demeanour. Aram also goes out looking for love, with similar results, a choice cut being a woefully-inarticulate hairbrained cutie-pie - "I love theories, they make me a little horny!"

While still far below record pre-crisis peaks, commodity prices are slowly recovering from their dramatic decline. Weak demand growth and low capacity utilization will moderate the rebound over the next year or two, but low investment now may establish conditions for another price boom in the longer term. While rising prices will impact budgets in major commodity export and import nations, the effect on inflation will likely be minimal. Commodity Prices Pummeled by Crisis During the crisis, oil, metals, and food prices fell from historic peaks as industrial activity collapsed.

Sandy (Catherine Zeta-Jones), upon discovering her husband's infidelity while watching her son's birthday video, leaves the suburbs and moves into the city. She gets an apartment that's above a coffee house where she befriends one of the workers, Aram (Justin Bartha), a guy whose wife only married him so she could get a green card. Aram's family thinks he's wasting his life and education by working in the coffee house. Soon after moving into the apartment, Sandy hires Aram to be her nanny while she takes on work for the first time since her children where born. It isn't long when Aram and Sandy find they get along wonderfully and start to date. But the question is: is their relationship real or is it, in fact, just a rebound for both of them?

In this work, we propose the rebound attack, a new tool for the cryptanalysis of hash functions. The idea of the rebound attack is to use the available degrees of freedom in a collision attack to efficiently bypass the low probability parts of a differential trail. The rebound attack consists of an inbound phase with a match-in-the-middle part to exploit the available degrees of freedom, and a subsequent probabilistic outbound phase. Especially on AES based hash functions, the rebound attack leads to new attacks for a surprisingly high number of rounds.

We use the rebound attack to construct collisions for 4.5 rounds of the 512-bit hash function Whirlpool with a complexity of 2120 compression function evaluations and negligible memory requirements. The attack can be extended to a near-collision on 7.5 rounds of the compression function of Whirlpool and 8.5 rounds of the similar hash function Maelstrom. Additionally, we apply the rebound attack to the SHA-3 submission Grøstl, which leads to an attack on 6 rounds of the Grøstl-256 compression function with a complexity of 2120 and memory requirements of about 264.

Buy a more fuel-efficient car and you will spend more time behind the wheel. That argument, termed the rebound effect, has earned critics of energy-efficiency programmes a voice in the climate-policy debate, for example with an article in The New York Times entitled 'When energy efficiency sullies the environment'1.

Various factors slow the uptake of efficient technologies, including behaviour, high cost and split incentives between investors and beneficiaries. Energy standards could help. Last year, the United States extended its fuel-economy standards for cars and trucks to require a doubling by 2025. Even taking rebound into account, we expect that these standards will yield substantial net energy savings.

Two other rebound effects apply on the scale of national economies. The latest fuel-economy standards passed by the United States will reduce demand for oil there. But, because that will drive down the price of oil globally, they could encourage people elsewhere to drive more, leading to a 'macroeconomic price' effect.

Macroeconomic rebound effects are hard to pin down, but simple economic theory sets a limit. Standard assumptions linking supply and demand suggest that 'backfire' due to the price effect is impossible: if global demand for oil falls, the oil will become cheaper, so the incentive to produce it will be reduced. Less oil will be used overall, even though the cost is lower.

In sum, rebound effects are small and are therefore no excuse for inaction. People may drive fuel-efficient cars more and they may buy other goods, but on balance more-efficient cars will save energy.

Energy-efficiency measures should be on the policy menu to curb energy use and to address global warming. Stricter energy-efficiency legislation should be considered across all sectors, alongside options that are not subject to rebound effects, such as carbon pricing. 041b061a72


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